The Radcliffe Camera is a building in Oxford, England, designed by James Gibbs in the English Palladian style and built in 1737–1749 to house the Radcliffe Science Library. The building is the earliest example in England of a circular library.
Guercino: Portrait of Francesco Righetti (1626–28)
It is quite interesting to look at the different style of storing, and labeling, books at the time. The books are bound in vellum, lying flat, top edge facing the viewer, and here the title is inscribed.
There are local differences too: In Germany, books were typically bound in pigskin with wooden boards, and they were stored upright, but with the backstrip to the wall and the title inscribed on the fore-edge.